Swelling in retina due to diabetes

Diabetes ödéma lábmasszázs

This number is likely to more than double by according to the projection of WHO. This more than twofold global increase will occur because of population ageing and growth, as well as from obesity, unhealthy diets and a sedentary lifestyle.

swelling in retina due to diabetes látomás 1 25 plusz

These latter factors are closely associated with urbanization and industrialization. Other complications of diabetes include infections, metabolic difficulties, impotence, autonomic neuropathy and pregnancy problems.

Diabetic microvascular complications result from damage to the small blood vessels in the nerves, eyes and kidneys, and eventually lead to loss of function in these tissues.

Diabétesz jelentések és iskola

The walls szemészeti vizsgálat the vessels become abnormally thick but weak, followed by bleeding, leakage of protein which slows the flow of blood to the cells.

If undetected and untreated, these complications can potentially lead to severe organ damage possibly resulting in limb amputation, blindness, and kidney failure. When the kidneys are damaged, protein leaks out of the kidneys into the urine. Damaged kidneys can no longer remove waste and extra fluids from the bloodstream. Overt nephropathy is characterized by 2, 3 progressive decline in renal function resulting in end stage renal disease.

A cukorbetegség életet élhet

Neuropathy is a heterogenious condition that is associated with nerve pathology. The three major forms in people with diabetes are peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and mononeuropathy. The most common form is peripheral neuropathy, which affects mainly 2, 3 In the eye, diabetes may affect almost all anatomical structures: diabetic keratopathy may develop, cataract formation is more rapid and the retina may suffer severe damage 2, 4 leading to the decline and finally the loss of vision.

The most serious eye condition associated with diabetes involves the retina and more specifically, the network of blood vessels lying within it.

Photo fundus diabetes mellitus

The abnormalities that characterise diabetic retinopathy occur in predictable progression with minor variations in the order of their appearance. Diabetic retinopathy is considered to be the result of vascular changes in the retinal circulation. In the early stages vascular occlusion and dilations occur.

swelling in retina due to diabetes javítja a látást egy csomóval

It progresses into a proliferative retinopathy with the growth of new blood vessels. Macular edema the thickening of the central part of the retina can significantly decrease visual acuity. Figure 1. Color fundus image left and Fluorescein Angiography FLA late phase image right of an eye swelling in retina due to diabetes moderate diabetic retinopathy and severe diabetic maculopathy.

On the color fundus image retinal hemorrhages and microaneurysms can be seen, while the white-colored hard exudates are indicative of diabetic macular edema.

Ideiglenesen le vagy tiltva

On the late phase of the FLA diffuse leakage can be seen in the macula with several microaneurysms scattered around the entire retina.

Specifically, diabetic maculopathy is very common in people with more severe background DRP. In diabetic maculopathy, fluid rich in fat and cholesterol leaks out of damaged vessels. If the fluid accumulates near the center of the retina the macula there will be distortion of central vision. If too much fluid and cholesterol accumulates in the macula, it can cause permanent loss of central vision.

Howewer, one of the main requirements in routine clinical assessment of diabetic maculopathy is for quantitative parameters, also as an objective basis for assessing the efficacy of therapy.

A dió jó a cukorbetegség számára?

The Early Treatment Retinopathy Study ETDRS criteria for classification of macular edema are based on slit-lamp biomicroscopy of macular thickening, independently of the angiographic findings. This classification arose from the need for quantification, but is still not a complete solution, since basically it only distinguishes between two major types of macular edema: Clinically Significant Macular Edema CSME and non-CSME. This is one of the main reasons why ophthalmic imaging techniques are developing so incredibly fast, enabling the assessment of more and more details down to a single photoreceptor cell.

Optical coherence tomography OCT is one of the fields where state-of-the-art technology meets clinical demands, helping the clinician ophthalmologist with a new dimension of medical thinking: the high resolution cross-sectional plane of the retina. Thus, the longitudinal location of tissue structures are determined by measuring the time-of-flight delays of light backscattered from these structures.

The optical delays are measured by low coherence interferometry.

Mi jobban segít a cukorbetegségben

Light reflected from deeper layers has a longer propagation delay than light reflected from more superficial layers. Low coherence means that the system employs a wide range of wavelengths. The most straightforward and currently the most common interferometer for OCT is a simple Michelson interferometer see Fig. Light retro-reflected from the reference and the sample is recombined at the beam splitter and half is collected by a photodetector in the detection arm of the interferometer.

swelling in retina due to diabetes gimnasztika hyperopia és astigmatizmus esetén

Half of the light is returned towards the source, where it is lost. In addition, the reference arm light is typically attenuated by orders of magnitude in order to improve signal to noise ratio.

Diabetes ödéma lábmasszázs

Schematic drawing of the principle of OCT emphasizing how it is essentially a Michelson interferometer. The outgoing light paths are solid lines, while reflected light is drawn as dashed lines. The axial resolution of an OCT image depends on the coherence length which is a fundamental property of the light source, whereas transverse resolution for OCT imaging is determined by focused spot size, as in microscopy.

By rapidly varying the reference arm mirror and synchronously recording a látás helyreállító kezelése magnitude of the resulting interference signal, a single axial profile or A-scan is obtained which is a graph of the optical reflectivity versus distance in the eye.

A sequence of such A-scans is obtained by scanning the probe beam across the entire retina which forms a B-scan tomogram. As a result, a cross-sectional view of the structure similar to a histology section is obtained.

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The method and also its display in originally greyscale pixels is very similar to that of ultrasound, with the exception that light is used for imaging purposes rather than light, leading to the above mentioned advantages of resolution resulting from a shorter wavelength. OCT can be used for retinal imaging and anterior segment imaging.

The OCT for ophthalmic examination is similar to a slit lamp swelling in retina due to diabetes anterior segment imaging and a fundus camera for retinal imaging.

Medication Injection and Laser Surgery for Macular Edema

The instrumentation includes a video display for operator viewing of the anterior segment or fundus while obtaining the OCT images and a simultaneous computer display of the tomograms.

Images are stored via computer for the diagnostic record. Strong reflections occur 10 between two materials of different refractive indices and from a tissue that has a high scattering coefficient along with a disposition to scatter light in the perfectly backward direction.

In most tissues, main sources of reflection are collagen fiber bundles, cell walls, and cell nuclei.

swelling in retina due to diabetes látás asztigmatizmus mi

Dark areas on the image represent homogeneous material with low reflectivity, such as air or clear fluids. The imaging light is attenuated in the sample, so swelling in retina due to diabetes is an exponential decrease in the intensity of the image with depth.

Blood attenuates the signal faster than collagenous tissues, fat and fluids attenuate the signal the least. Figure 3. OCT image of the normal human macula.

A Ultrahigh resolution Swelling in retina due to diabetes image showing the various cellular layers of the retina.

swelling in retina due to diabetes Mi Garik Kharlamov jövőképe

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